Deep Ecology

The 8 Points of Deep Ecology

1. The flourishing of human and non-human life on Earth
has inherent value. The value of non-human life forms
is independent of the usefulness of the non-human world
for human purposes.

2. The richness and diversity of life forms are also
values in them selves and contribute to the flourishing
of human and non-human life on Earth.

3. Humans have no right to reduce this richness and
diversity except to satisfy vital needs.

4. Present human interference with the non-human world
is excessive, and the situation is rapidly worsening.

5. The flourishing of human life and cultures is
compatible with a substantial decrease of human
population. The flourishing of non-human life requires
such a decrease.

6. Significant change of life conditions for the better
requires change in policies. These affect basic
economic, technological, and ideological structures.

7. The ideological change is mainly that of appreciating
life quality (dwelling in situations of inherent value)
rather than adhering to a high standard of living. There
will be profound awareness of the difference between big
and great.

8. Those who subscribe to the foregoing points have an
obligation, directly or indirectly, to participate in the
attempt to implement the necessary changes.